Die Stadt der Inka. Auf einer Bergspitze, mitten in den Anden, Meter hoch liegt die antike Stadt Machu Picchu. Ihr Anblick ist beeindruckend und lockt. Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu = alter Gipfel) ist eine archäologische Stätte in Peru und eine der bekanntesten Inkastädte überhaupt. Sie befindet sich. Finden Sie die am besten bewerteten Touren und Aktivitäten in Machu Picchu für Mit allen Informationen von Preisen und Zeiten bis hin zu Tickets ohne.
Machu Picchu in PeruMachu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu = alter Gipfel) ist eine archäologische Stätte in Peru und eine der bekanntesten Inkastädte überhaupt. Sie befindet sich. die Geschichte Altamerikas für immer verändern: Auf Metern Höhe fand er mitten in den Anden die legendäre Inka-Stadt Machu Picchu - die abgelegene. Finden Sie die am besten bewerteten Touren und Aktivitäten in Machu Picchu für Mit allen Informationen von Preisen und Zeiten bis hin zu Tickets ohne.
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The history of chocolate can be traced to the ancient Mayans, and even earlier to the ancient Olmecs of southern Mexico. The word chocolate may conjure up images of sweet candy bars and luscious truffles, but the chocolate of today is little like the chocolate of the past.
Constructed around A. Thousands of Nazi officers, high-ranking party members and collaborators—including many notorious war criminals—escaped across the Atlantic, Live TV.
This Day In History. HISTORY Podcasts. History at Home. Shows This Day In History Schedule Topics Stories. PHOTO GALLERIES Machu Picchu.
Machu Picchu. Easter Island. Site : Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu Location : Peru Year Designated : Category : Cultural Criteria : i iii vii ix Reason : Machu Picchu is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world.
The complex of palaces and plazas, temples and homes may have been built as a ceremonial site, a military stronghold, or a retreat for ruling elites—its dramatic location is certainly well suited for any of those purposes.
The ruins lie on a high ridge, surrounded on three sides by the windy, turbulent Urubamba River some 2, feet meters below.
Scholars are still striving to uncover clues to the mysteries hidden here high in the eastern slopes of the Andes, covered with tropical forests of the upper Amazon Basin.
Machu Picchu appears to lie at the center of a network of related sites and trails—and many landmarks both man-made and mountainous appear to align with astronomical events like the solstice sunset.
The Inca had no written language, so they left no record of why they built the site or how they used it before it was abandoned in the early 16th century.
Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Ancient History Encyclopedia - Machu Picchu, Peru UNESCO World Heritage Convention - Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu National Geographic - Archaeology - Machu Picchu, Peru LiveScience - Machu Picchu: Facts and History.
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Alternative Titles: Macchu Picchu, Machupicchu, Machupijchu. Partial zoom-in view of Machu Picchu, Peru. Panoramic view of Machu Picchu, Peru.
Machu Picchu, Peru, designated a World Heritage site in Detail of location of Machu Picchu in south-central Peru. Hiram Bingham at Machu Picchu, Peru, Time-lapse video of Machu Picchu, Peru.
Inca dwellings at Machu Picchu, Peru. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Stepped agricultural terraces and dwellings at Machu Picchu, Peru.
For most speakers of English or Spanish, the first 'c' in Picchu is silent. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was constructed as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti — Often mistakenly referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas", it is the most familiar icon of Inca civilization.
The Incas built the estate around but abandoned it a century later at the time of the Spanish conquest. Although known locally, it was not known to the Spanish during the colonial period and remained unknown to the outside world until American historian Hiram Bingham brought it to international attention in Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style, with polished dry-stone walls.
Its three primary structures are the Intihuatana , the Temple of the Sun , and the Room of the Three Windows. Most of the outlying buildings have been reconstructed in order to give tourists a better idea of how they originally appeared.
Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historic Sanctuary in and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in In the Quechua language , machu means "old" or "old person", while pikchu means either "portion of coca being chewed" or "pyramid, pointed multi-sided solid; cone".
Machu Picchu is believed by Richard L. Burger to have been built in the s. Though Machu Picchu is considered to be a "royal" estate, surprisingly, it would not have been passed down in the line of succession.
Rather it was used for 80 years before being abandoned, seemingly because of the Spanish Conquests in other parts of the Inca Empire.
Though the estate belonged to Pachacutec, religious specialists and temporary specialized workers mayocs lived there as well, most likely for the ruler's well-being and enjoyment.
During the harsher season, staff dropped down to around a hundred servants and a few religious specialists focused on maintenance alone. Studies show that according to their skeletal remains, most people who lived there were immigrants from diverse backgrounds.
They lacked the chemical markers and osteological markers they would have if they had been living there their whole lives.
Instead, there was bone damage from various species of water parasites indigenous to different areas of Peru. There were also varying osteological stressors and varying chemical densities suggesting varying long-term diets characteristic of specific regions that were spaced apart.
This suggests that several of the immigrants were from more coastal areas and moved to Machu Picchu where corn was a larger portion of food intake.
Inca individuals who had arthritis and bone fractures were typically those who performed heavy physical labor such as the Mit'a or served in the Inca military.
Animals are also suspected to have migrated to Machu Picchu as there were several bones found that were not native to the area.
Most animal bones found were from llamas and alpacas. Most likely, these animals were brought in from the Puna region  for meat consumption and for their pelts.
Due to their placements among the human remains, it is believed that they served as companions of the dead.
Much of the farming done at Machu Picchu was done on its hundreds of man-made terraces. These terraces were a work of considerable engineering, built to ensure good drainage and soil fertility while also protecting the mountain itself from erosion and landslides.
However, the terraces were not perfect, as studies of the land show that there were landslides that happened during the construction of Machu Picchu.
Still visible are places where the terraces were shifted by landslides and then stabilized by the Inca as they continued to build around the area.
Because of the large amount of rainfall at Machu Picchu, it was found that irrigation was not needed for the terraces. The terraces received so much rain that they were built by Incan engineers specifically to allow for ample drainage of the extra water.
Excavation and soil analyses done by Kenneth Wright    in the s showed that the terraces were built in layers, with a bottom layer of larger stones covered by loose gravel.
It was shown that the topsoil was probably moved from the valley floor to the terraces because it was much better than the soil higher up the mountain.
However, it has been found that the terrace farming area makes up only about 4. This explains why when studies were done on the food that the Inca ate at Machu Picchu, it was found that most of what they ate was imported from the surrounding valleys and farther afield.
Unlike other locations, sacred rocks often defaced by the conquistadors remain untouched at Machu Picchu.
Over the centuries, the surrounding jungle overgrew the site, and few outside the immediate area knew of its existence. The site may have been discovered and plundered in by a German businessman, Augusto Berns.
Maps show references to Machu Picchu as early as In American historian and explorer Hiram Bingham traveled the region looking for the old Inca capital and was led to Machu Picchu by a villager, Melchor Arteaga.
Though Bingham was not the first to visit the ruins, he was considered the scientific discoverer who brought Machu Picchu to international attention.
Bingham organized another expedition in to undertake major clearing and excavation. In , Peru declared an area of In addition to the ruins, the sanctuary includes a large portion of the adjoining region, rich with the flora and fauna of the Peruvian Yungas and Central Andean wet puna ecoregions.
In , UNESCO designated Machu Picchu a World Heritage site , describing it as "an absolute masterpiece of architecture and a unique testimony to the Inca civilization".
Bingham was a lecturer at Yale University , although not a trained archaeologist. He organized the Yale Peruvian Expedition in part to search for the Inca capital, which was thought to be the city of Vitcos.
In particular, Ramos thought Vitcos was "near a great white rock over a spring of fresh water. According to Bingham, "one old prospector said there were interesting ruins at Machu Picchu," though his statements "were given no importance by the leading citizens.
Armed with this information the expedition went down the Urubamba River. En route, Bingham asked local people to show them Inca ruins, especially any place described as having a white rock over a spring.
At Mandor Pampa, Bingham asked farmer and innkeeper Melchor Arteaga if he knew of any nearby ruins. Arteaga said he knew of excellent ruins on the top of Huayna Picchu.
At the top of the mountain, they came across a small hut occupied by a couple of Quechua , Richard and Alvarez, who were farming some of the original Machu Picchu agricultural terraces that they had cleared four years earlier.
Alvarez's year-old son, Pablito, led Bingham along the ridge to the main ruins. The ruins were mostly covered with vegetation except for the cleared agricultural terraces and clearings used by the farmers as vegetable gardens.
Because of the vegetation, Bingham was not able to observe the full extent of the site. He took preliminary notes, measurements, and photographs, noting the fine quality of Inca stonework of several principal buildings.
Bingham was unclear about the original purpose of the ruins, but decided that there was no indication that it matched the description of Vitcos.
The expedition continued down the Urubamba and up the Vilcabamba Rivers examining all the ruins they could find. Guided by locals, Bingham rediscovered and correctly identified the site of the old Inca capital, Vitcos then called Rosaspata , and the nearby temple of Chuquipalta.
In , Gene Savoy further explored the ruins at Espiritu Pampa and revealed the full extent of the site, identifying it as Vilcabamba Viejo, where the Incas fled after the Spanish drove them from Vitcos.
Bingham returned to Machu Picchu in under the sponsorship of Yale University and National Geographic again and with the full support of Peruvian President Leguia.
The expedition undertook a four-month clearing of the site with local labour, which was expedited with the support of the Prefect of Cuzco.
Excavation started in with further excavation undertaken in and Bingham focused on Machu Picchu because of its fine Inca stonework and well-preserved nature, which had lain undisturbed since the site was abandoned.
None of Bingham's several hypotheses explaining the site held up. During his studies, he carried various artifacts back to Yale. One prominent artifact was a set of 15th-century, ceremonial Incan knives made from bismuth bronze ; they are the earliest known artifact containing this alloy.
Although local institutions initially welcomed the exploration, they soon accused Bingham of legal and cultural malpractice.
In fact, Bingham removed many artifacts, but openly and legally; they were deposited in the Yale University Museum.
Bingham was abiding by the Civil Code of Peru; the code stated that "archaeological finds generally belonged to the discoverer, except when they had been discovered on private land.
Little information describes human sacrifices at Machu Picchu, though many sacrifices were never given a proper burial, and their skeletal remains succumbed to the elements.
The tradition is upheld by members of the New Age Andean religion. Machu Picchu lies in the southern hemisphere , It is one of the most important archaeological sites in South America, one of the most visited tourist attractions in Latin America  and the most visited in Peru.
Machu Picchu features wet humid summers and dry frosty winters, with the majority of the annual rain falling from October through to March.
The area is subject to morning mists rising from the river.Peru this Week. The wettest months are January and February, and are not great for trekking. Mineola: Dover Publications, Inc. In addition, you can Reichtum Englisch buy some Inca souvenirs in the city market if you have cash in Soles. Of course the quality of service should determine the extent of any gratuity.